The construction processes of Antarctic history have been developed based on certain interests that have generated a clear hierarchy among different periods. As a result of this configuration, the early 19th-century process of seal hunting has been marginalized and virtually rendered invisible. In contrast, the Heroic era, characterized by the presence of prominent figures and mythological narratives, has been given a position of preeminence. Throughout this work, various conceptual elements and lines of analysis are sought to critically examine the structuring processes of memory, drawing on the contributions made by archaeology since the 1980s as a tool for contrasting written history in a context heavily influenced by national interests and narratives. Through the investigation of material evidence of human activities preserved in the present, interpretations are developed regarding the transformations of the South Shetland Islands territory as a landscape appropriated and modified according to specific interests. The aim is to present archaeology not only as a discipline that works with factual or tangible elements but also as one that articulates these with intangible information, enhancing processes of interpretation.